IOS organises two-day International Conference on “War, Politics and Peace in the Globalized World: Looking for Way Forward”
IOS organises two-day International Conference on “War, Politics and Peace in the Globalized World: Looking for Way Forward”
New Delhi: A two-day international conference on ‘War, Politics and Peace in the Globalized World: Looking for Way Forward’, was organised by the Institute of Objective Studies in hybrid mode on December 16-17, 2023.
The conference commenced with the recitation of a Verse from the Holy Qur’an by Maulana Adnan Ahmad Nadwi.
Introducing the theme, convenor and the vice-chairman of the IOS, Prof. M. Afzal Wani, said that the thought on peace should be constant and a continuous process. It was due to the thought that the human being dominated the world. But, looking at the two world wars, one found that the world was ridden with conflicts. Thus the question was whether the thought went through wars. Wars turned out to be one of the attributes of human being. Referring to the IOS activities, he observed that several such conferences had been organised in the past as well. Though there was the least possibility of reducing wars, every opportunity should be utilized to reduce them. Thus there was a need to develop intellectual thoughts to promote peace in the world in order to make it a place to live in, he added.
Inaugurating the conference, intellectual, inventor, telecommunication engineer and entrepreneur based in the United States, Sam Pitroda, deplored that various countries and their leaders were inciting violence in place of peace in a bid to serve their interest and implement their agenda of throwing the world into a new war. It could be very disastrous for humanity and cherishing values of the world. It was very sad that the world had 20 wars going on. These wars were attracting global attention because of the killing of thousands of people, including women and children. Many people had been rendered homeless due to war. He said that even the 20th century was not free from strife among several countries. Dreadful wars in Africa and the Middle-East were symptomatic of a phenomenon which was very disturbing. He noted that the situation was very alarming. He held that peace in the world was not possible until the balance of power among influential nations was maintained.
Referring to the information explosion, Sam Pitroda said that it was a content communication and the connectivity of life. Due to hyper connectivity, change in governance, education, health and humanity was taking place. He opined that democracy in the US and other countries of the world was becoming a danger because polarization due to hate, vendetta and violence, was creating an environment of fear. Elections had become very expensive in a democracy. Today, leaders of political parties were creating enemies and fear. He attributed it to the supremacy of the colonial frame of mind which spread hate and manipulation became a strong tool in their hands. Communication had commanded hyper-connectivity and exclusion of social groups created a lot of problems in society. These ideas left the world with two wars which were unparalled in history. In the wake of the Second World War, the United States of America designed the United Nations and other specialized agencies of it. He said that these organizations were created due to hyper-sensitivity. But arms race had not as yet ended as an estimated amount of two billion dollars were being spent on warheads. Defence deals were being clinched with fanfare. Commenting on trade battles, he held that this virus led the world into inter-dependence.
Sam Pitroda talked about the crisis of leadership in today’s world. These leaders were pigmies. They were a corrupt lot and had their egos. They were not like Gandhi who was truthful and wedded to his commitment. They could not speak against injustice and exploitation. He noted that there was also the crisis of values due to lack of justice and trust. Unfortunately, there was little or no conversation at all on this issue. Then came diversity which made the world diverse in various respects. But, this potential was not being fully tapped. There was a need to exploit diversity for the good of the world. He said that the real war was about the climate change. Global warming was posing a serious challenge to human existence. Then there was the problem of homeless people, besides health issues. Inequality and injustice were other issues which should receive a priority to be addressed. There was also the need to ensure economic parity for the under-privileged. Today, the world needed hyper-connectivity. He concluded that facilities like military establishments were misused.
In his key-note address, former defence minister, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the professor at the school of political science, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia, Prof. Selmi Cikotic, remarked that there was tension and violence all around the world. The world was ridden with either war or civil war. There were also areas where two-countries were engaged in a war. In addition several groups were fighting against each other. He said that super powers were responsible for these wars and conflicts in various parts of the world due to their vested interest. When one group declared war on the other, these powers supported one group against the other by helping it by way of arms supplies. Conflicts started when one group was suppressed by the other by usurping the rights of the latter. Pleading for inter-dependence of countries, he said that this became more important in the present context for national and international security. Major technological cooperation among SAARC countries was needed for better international understanding. He said that courageous leadership was required to take bold decisions on national and international issues which might range from internal security to international peace. There had been Euro-centric war due to the insane use of military and technology to subjugate a country. Factors that exacerbated hostilities included power of armaments and non-justifiable hierarchy. Referring to his country, he said that she was a mixture of religious and progressive country. The people of the country cherished civilisational and social values. Drawing attention to the rich legacy of Islam, he noted that the Christianity could learn a lot from it.
Prof. Selmi Cikotic observed that maintaining army was necessary for the survival of a country. Military deterrence could protect the country from foreign aggression. He said that he understood the history of mankind and the economic well-being of the country, and hoped that the country’s international position could be recovered. He stressed the need for Mediterranean alliance of civilisations rather than clash of civilizations. There should be collaboration and alliance of civilisations. Instead of the politics of battle, region, religion, economy and justice should receive more attention. He concluded that there should be no ground for revenge. Rather, there should be co-operation and alliance of religions as his country suffered much.
Speaking as a special invitee, honorary fellow and director, Institute of Chinese Studies, Delhi and India’s former ambassador to China, Ashok K. Kantha, observed that the conference was held against the background of the conflict in Ukraine and Palestine. About 20 countries of the world were involved in wars and some of them were at unnoticed war. Quoting the U.N. Secretary General, Antonio Guterres, he said that according to him, what happened on October 7 last year, was not in a vacuum. Referring to Israel-Hamas war, he said that the latter was fighting for a rightful cause. Israeli bombing on civilian areas and the denial of food to thousands of people in Gaza was inappropriate. Since India had good relations with all the stakeholders in the area, it supported UN resolution on Palestine. It would promote equity in and nationalism in Gaza area. Though there was transition towards a multipolar world, it was not yet complete. It might be the start of a new cold war there. Fragmentation of global economy was a new phenomenon which could further worsen. He noted that both USA and China could resolve global issues, though this could be a very challenging task.
Ashok K. Kantha pointed out that global economic environment was becoming difficult. He said that the Chinese behavior was distinctive in the region which was guided by its interest internally. Nation-building was the purpose of China which led to the coaxing of others. But India was obliged to work for global peace. Politics, economy and foreign policy were looking towards South and the West. Under the circumstances, how one could suggest for global peace. He questioned the role of global powers in performing their duty fairly. Gameplan of the big powers was to serve their interest by prolonging conflicts. But it was India’s duty to keep the people’s interest in view. He called for using India’s potential to promote global peace.
Former member of the Rajya Sabha, Meem Afzal, deplored that despite the world being civilized, it was haunted by wars. There were wars between Russia and Ukraine and the Israeli war in Gaza. He appealed to the world community to impress upon Israel to stop brutalities on the Palestinians. The Israeli war in Gaza was aimed at taking control of the Palestinian territory for exploiting its rich resources, like gas and petroleum. In order to stop war, rights of Palestinians should be recognized. He said that politics and diplomacy were responsible for war. On one hand, there was talk of a free world, but on the other hand, there was USSR controlled by the Soviet Union. The moot question was how to bring peace in the world. Politics was at the heart of war and the decision to start and end war was taken by the politicians. The military started war only after it was ordered by the political establishment. Referring to the route of diplomacy, instead of confrontation, he said that it was Henry Kessinger who used this route to soften conflict between USA and China.
Senior journalist, Dr. John Dayal, observed that Sam Pitroda opened factories of technology and gave chance to capitalism. Children, journalists and women were being killed by Israel in Gaza with the result that about 200 human bodies were rotting there. The United Nations forgot its Charter to protect the life and property of the Palestinians. He said that he travelled in Palestine and saw with his own eyes the plight of the Palestinian people. Morality became a victim as the world failed in its duty to stop Israel from flagrantly violating human rights. Israel was a nuclear power and her stubbornness could not be checked. He said that hundreds of people were lynched due to their identity as Muslims.
Social activist, Dr. Ram Puniyani held that social media platforms were used to target Muslims. After 9/11, a new global politics followed with Islamophobia taking the central stage. Hate against Muslims became a powerful weapon to target them. Referring to the current conflict between Israel and Hamas, he said that 85 percent land of Palestine was occupied by Israel. He said that Gaza was rich in natural resources as 5 or 7 million cubic feet gas was available there. He insisted that peace could not be restored without justice. USA had been using its stooges to run government in several parts of the world. A case in illustration was Afghanistan where the US foisted a fundamentalist government. America waged a war in Afghanistan. Similarly, it launched war against Iraq without valid reasons. Now was the turn of Ghaza where it was waging a proxy war. There was a war industry in powerful countries which supplied military hardware to combatant nations. He said the United Nations was not effective to intervene in a war between two countries. With a view to putting a check on wars, he suggested the formation of a world government by the UN with the assistance of other international organisations. He also suggested that there should be an alliance of civilisations to counter clash of civilization. He held that powerful nations attacked weaker countries. Countries should, therefore, be sensitive to peace at the global level. Majoritarian politics had become the bane of harmony and peace. In the circumstances, IOS could play an important role in promoting social understanding, he concluded.
Former vice-chancellor, Maulana Azad University, Jodhpur and professor emeritus, Islamic Studies, Jamia Millia Islamia, Prof. Akhtarul Wasey praised the IOS for working towards peace, reconciliation and social amity. He said that war in itself was a problem as the one who fought war also faced danger. League of Nation’s was replaced by the United Nations in 1946. But the veto power enjoyed by the members of the Security Council made the world body ineffective. He suggested that veto power should be exercised only if the majority of the members exercised it. Peace was essential for sustained development. He nursed a grouse that instead of connecting the people, politics was only dividing them. He warned that what was happening today could set the world on dangerous course. War had wide ramifications for others as well even if they were not directly connected to it. He stressed that India should maintain equidistance from both the United States and the Soviet Union. Big powers waged war to protect themselves. He said that defence industry was flourishing due to the supply of weapons to the warring nations by big powers. He held that peace in the Middle East was not possible without restoring peace in Palestine. He urged the US to impress upon Israel to abide by the Oslo Accord. Today, there was the need for politics of integration as against the politics of division, he added.
Chairman of the IOS, Dr. M. Manzoor Alam, observed that peace could be built on the concept of justice for all. There was no other way than helping others than killing them. If justice was denied on the basis of class, caste, colour and region, peace could not be built. He said that there was a responsibility on the leaders of the world to work for justice for all. Development should benefit all the people of the world. War should be taken up as a challenge and dealt with the UN Machinery effectively. He continued that the whole humanity should in any case not ignore human sufferings under the scourge of wars and the aspiration for peace as a cherished goal for all. The international legal framework for controlling of war prospects and reduction of war atrocities should be strengthened. He suggested that there should be periodical institutional evaluation of the working of the United Nations as its failure and success. Issues of justice, economic and political conflicts creating ground for wars in the emerging world should be examined seriously. United Nations should not be allowed to remain in crisis and fail like the League of Nations, he concluded.
Presiding over the session, secretary general of the IOS, Prof. Z.M. Khan observed that it was very difficult to suggest solution to the problems facing the world. Coming to the home front, he said that religion was being misused and mobilized to seek votes. Tribals and Adivasis were especially used for the purpose. The outreach of the saffron party did not find support in the South yet. Ultra-rightists engineered riots and engaged poor sections in violence against the minorities. These right wing rioters’ wards were getting education in the West. They used weaker sections in their own interest in order to keep them in their fold. They used technology with the same mindset. He said that man is a moral being and was driven by Islam and the Prophet (PBUH) and his Companions. The IOS was trying to promote Islamic philosophy and teachings that suited human mind. The institute was doing something out of box, he concluded.
In his brief reference, Prof. Wani said that the concept of charity and spirit led to peace.
On this occasion, two books – Technology and Youth, edited by Prof. Haseena Hashia and Global Trends in Education, edited by Prof. Shoeb Abdullah, and published by the IOS, were jointly released by those present on the dais. Both the editors highlighted the contents of the books.
At the end of the session, assistant secretary general of the Institute Prof. Haseena Hashia extended a vote of thanks.
Chaired by the ex-associate dean, director and chairman, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Prof. Aftab Kamal Pasha, the first technical session focused on perspectives, policies, conflicts and aspirations for peace.
The first speaker of the session was Prof. Dr. Noor Ahmed Baba, former dean of social sciences, Kashmir University and Central University of Kashmir, Srinagar. He spoke on ‘Rethinking War and Violence as an instrument of security in contemporary times. He said that this was a very complex theme. Conflict and confrontation were common to the region. Anarchy had put them into war. It created an order for a population group of people. Growth of knowledge and technology had created a dynamics of power. There were 70 percent casualties in Gaza. It was a challenge to human peace, he noted. Prof. Baba was followed by Prof. Iqbal Ali Khan, Professor of Law, Aligarh Muslim University. He focused on ‘War and its effects: As way forward’. He observed that since history, war had affected civilian population in terms of human sufferings. It had had an indelible mark and multi-dimensional impact on humanity. There was the need for holistic approach to war. International organisations failed to stop war. Veto power had defeated the very purpose of UN resolutions. He called for the withdrawal of veto power.
Prof. Arshi Khan, professor of political science, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, focused on the way forward for world peace. He said that in the 19th century, power became a decisive factor. Referring to the Israel-Hamas war, he suggested that the entire Palestine should be made one state. He also suggested that three-fourths majority of the UN resolution should be there to take action against the erring country.
The fourth speaker was Prof. Upendra Choudhury, professor of political science, AMU, who centered on ‘International politics and security issues in Indo-Pacific. He maintained that in order to contain China, United States was focused on Indo-Pacific. The concept Indo-Pacific should be inclusive. He said that India stood for all-inclusive approach. The fifth speaker was assistant professor of political science, Jamia Hamdard, Dr. Ayan Guha, who spoke on ‘Global Politics and Peace Processes in the world: Between myth and reality.’ He held that every state wanted to accumulate power. Every system was anarchical. It was in that context that collective security concept was devised by the UN. He said that security also became a social structure.
Assistant professor of law and political science, school of law, Fairfield Institute of Management and Technology, New Delhi, Dr. Manish Yadav focused on ‘International Humanitarian Law: Issues and challenges after seven decades’. He commented that Gaza was the largest open jail in the world and the international response and humanitarian assistance had been blocked. Efforts for de-escalation of Israel-Hamas were the need of the hour, he said. Dr. Yadav was followed by Dr. Swati Pandita, assistant professor, school of law, Fairfield Institute of Management and Technology. She spoke on Conceptual Foundations and Working of International Criminal Courts’. She explained that judges of the court had a 7-year term. There were three types of judges and war crimes defined by the Geneva Convention came under its jurisdiction. There was an office of the prosecutor with which cases were registered. The term of the prosecutor was 9 years. Then the cases were investigated and the help of witnesses sought, she said. Eighth participant was senior journalist Iftekhar Gilani based in Istanbul whose topic was ‘Analysis of political factors influencing peace in the contemporary world. He could not speak but sent his paper in which he analysed briefly the factors that influenced peace initiatives in the world.
In his presidential remarks, Prof. Aftab Kamal Pasha, said that Israel was defying the appeal of 53 countries to stop war. He held that Israel was uprooting Palestinians and brutalities were perpetrated on them by the Israeli war machinery.
Chaired by Prof. Arshi Khan, the second technical session focused on the ‘United Nations responsibilities, legal regime for peace.’
Prof. Mohammed Asad Malik, professor, faculty of law, Jamia Millia Islamia, was the first speaker of the session who spoke on ‘Critical View of the performance of United Nations Security Council as expected under the UN Charter. He said that Security Council had a delegated role. Only permanent members could exercise veto power. The UN had the doctrine of collective humanitarian intervention in case of humanitarian crisis, he added. He was followed by Prof. Khawaja Abdul Muntaqim, human right expert, New Delhi, who dwelt on Human Rights, Genocide and working of the Genocide convention. He noted that despite efforts to stop them, genocide, continued to happen. Non-influential institutions proved to be paper tigers. He also referred to environmental injustice. The third speaker was Dr Mohammad Umar, associate professor of law, Lucknow University he said that there was flagrant violation of international criminal law. Geneva Convention, 1949 protected civilians from violence, discrimination, torture and their killings. Outrage of personal dignity of individuals was prohibited, he said.
Fourth and the last speaker was Dr Amrendra Kumar, assistant professor, faculty of law, Delhi University, who spoke on ‘Challenges for appropriate implementation of sustainable development goals (SDGS) for universal peace.’ He said that the creation of peaceful and inclusive society was on the goals of sustainable development. Other goals included reduction of all kinds of violence, human trafficking and torture, violation of the rule of law, reduction of corruption and bribery in all forms. It also included non-discriminatory law and policy. He noted that security also became a social structure.
In his presidential remarks, Prof Arshi Khan observed that more than 60 resolutions were passed by the UN General Assembly, but not a single of them was implemented. These resolutions related to Iraq, Iran, Israel and Afghanistan. In Gaza, rights of the people in occupied areas were violated. More than 115 UN officials were killed there. Besides, several hospitals in the area were bombed, he said.
Day-2 (December 17, 2023)
The third technical session was chaired by Prof Mohammad Asad Malik. The session was devoted to ‘Laws, institutions and initiatives for mitigation of horrors of war’.
The first speaker of the session was Dr. Amit Gupta, senior adviser on conflict resolution and international security, Forum of Federations, Ottawa, Canada, USAF Air War College, Alabania who discussed Ukraine, Israel and decline of the Western World Order. He said that in the globalized world, Indian standard of education was not still upto the mark, because Britishers were not there to train Indians. He noted that environment, education and water were three major issues before the country. He was followed by Prof Mehnaz Najmi, adjunct professor at Taxila American University, Guyana and an independent researcher, who focused on the human cost of Palestine-Israel conflict. The third speaker was Dr. Syed Ali Nawaz Zaidi, professor, faculty of law, AMU, who spoke on ‘Reasons for the failure of League of Nations and the Emergence of the United Nations’. He was followed by Prof Dr. Anuj Kumar Vaksha, professor, University School of Law and Legal Studies, GGSIP University, Delhi, who focused on structure, purpose and the role of ICRC in mitigating the horrors of war and war-like situations in present day globalized world.
The fifth speaker was Dr. M. Kalimullah, assistant professor, faculty of law, AMU. He spoke on social and cultural conflicts contributing to breaking out of wars. He was followed by Dr. Kirti Shinde, who focused on ‘Repercussions of war on women: Special reference to sexual violence against women.’ The last speaker was Dr. Subhradipta Sarkar, associate professor, faculty of law, JMI, who spoke on the second Geneva Convention, 1949 for the protection of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked military personnel at sea during war.’
Chaired by Prof. Nuzhat Parveen Khan, former dean, faculty of law, Jamia Millia Islamia, the fourth session was devoted to agenda for development, peace and related strategies.
The session began with the presentation of the paper on Protocol additional to the Geneva Convention of 12 August, 1949 and relating to the protection of victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol), 8 June, 1977. The second speaker was Prof. Mohammad Sohrab, professor, MMAJ Academy of International Studies, JMI. He spoke on moral imperatives for a just World Order. He was followed by Dr. Vandana Singh, associate professor, University School of Law and Legal Studies, GGSIP University, Delhi. She devoted her paper to ‘Implementation of Global IPR Agenda for Harmonic Development of Nation States and Strategies for minimization of conflicts’. Dr. Parikshet Sirohi, senior professor, faculty of law, Delhi University, was the last speaker who spoke on Reformation of UN for effective implementation of peace agenda in the world.
Prof Ghulam Yazdani, faculty of law, JMI was in the chair. The theme of the session was the impact of war on economy, society, health, education and environment.
Prof. Dr. Kamar Oniah Kamaruzaman, former professor of comparative religious and Islamic studies, International Islamic University, Malaysia was the first speaker of the session. He spoke on ‘Growing new humanity: Global citizens grounded on conscience and compassion’. He was followed by Dr. Qazi Mohammad Usman, professor, faculty of law, JMI. He focused on the topic, ‘Role of the World Health Organisation (WHO) during war, or excessive use of force’. The third speaker was Dr. Binish Maryam, assistant professor, Nelson Mandela Centre for Peace and Conflict Resolution, JMI. She devoted to the communal violence and peace process. The fourth speaker was Dr Zubair Ahmad Khan, assistant professor, University School of Law and Legal Studies, GGSIP University. He centered on Repercussions of wars for environment: Global experiences. He was followed by Dr. Syed Iqbal Ahmad from National Law University, Dwarka, Delhi, who spoke on Repercussions of wars for education system: Global experiences’.
The sixth speaker was Dr Ghazala Sharif, assistant professor of law, Amity University, NOIDA who discussed repercussions of war on children: Global experiences. The next speaker was Sadaf who briefly commented on effects of conflicts. Dr. Seema Singh Law Campus, Delhi University, was the last paper presenter, who examined the role of the International Court of Justice.
In his special address, Prof. Mohammad Tariq, professor of law, AMU, praised the IOS for its uniqueness to do research. He said that the United Nations was being dressed down due to its inability to intervene in conflicts in several parts of the world. There were numerous cases in which UN security council found itself unable to take effective action due to the veto power used by one of its permanent members to block implementation of the resolution. While one member voted in favour of the resolution, the other member said ‘no’ to it. Today’s war could not be called war because combatants were not on an equal footing. The country which was attacked was not so powerful as to retaliate against the attacker. International laws were flagrantly violated by powerful countries, he added.
Referring to the consequences of the next world, if at all it happened, he said that they would be disastrous for human beings. Going into the causes of a war, he noted that it was the issue of the economy of the developed nations who targeted poor countries. In spite of all this, these countries called themselves civilized. Thousands of people were being killed for nothing. They were completely destroying economy and resources of poor countries. He noted that one of the members of the Security Council was very important. Multipolar power system existed in the world today. He called for the restoration of peace in Palestine.
In her valedictory speech, Prof. Kahkashan Danyal, dean, faculty of law, JMI, stressed the need for examining the dynamics of war. She said that in order to respect the international law, Article 15 of the Indian Constitution forbade discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste, gender, or place of birth. Commenting on geo-political complexity, she said that open resilience was necessary to soften hardened attitude of nations on different issues. She also laid emphasis on commitment to dialogue to resolve contentious issues. She also explained the factors on which the future of global economy depended. Similarly, socio-economic disparity should be removed in order to ensure equality among all sections. In the age of ever expanding landscape of technology, power of education should be harnessed. Every effort should be made to see to it that peace was not elusive. With a view to raising collective conscience, criticism should be taken seriously, she added.
Dr. Raqeeb Alam, working with the NALSA (National Legal Service Authority), called for promoting sustainable goals of development.
Prof. Hameed Nasim Rafiabadi, ex-professor of Islamic Studies, Kashmir University, Srinagar, observed that peace had emerged as a new era. He demanded that Asia should be given its right to be a member of the Security Council. Only six members of the council decided the matter on Africa. He called for giving a chance to Asia and Africa. He also called for favouring countries who were non-combatants. There should be a new mechanism to ensure peace. Instead of allowing to depend more on the West, East should also be given a chance to do something concrete.
Presiding over the session, Prof. M. Afzal Wani, emphasized that thought was very important. Only then action would follow. He said that those who guided the world, had thoughts. This was the age of institutions. During the last 36-37 years, there came up many books, reports, survey reports and documents. Thus the world community would have the next pedestal. One should think of what the war was. He opined that politics was a process by which one loved. It was not a bad thing. Politics was not a crude consideration. He also urged the people to listen to the voice of nature.
At the conclusion of the session, a 7-point resolution was unanimously adopted by the participants. The resolution read out by Prof. Haseena Hashia, said, “It is a matter of great satisfaction that the Two-Day International Conference on “War, Politics and Peace in the Globalized World: Looking for Way Forward’ organised by the Institute of Objective Studies, New Delhi, India was successfully concluded. The conference successfully deliberated on the relevant issues and came out with the observations and thought of eminent members of the academia from India and abroad for the consideration of the world community. The conference adopted the following resolutions:
1. The United Nations organisation should take the conflicts between nations and non-international conflicts seriously to prevent bloodshed in the world.
2. The world community should realise the needs of the globalising world to establish peace for advancing it forward to attain main objectives of prosperity and peace.
3. The purpose of International Humanitarian Law should be popularised for promoting the policies for least damage caused by hates, conflicts and wars.
4. In conflict regions, the Nation States should be persuaded to have a reconciliatory approach in resolving mutual conflicts and avoid use of force.
5. Ethnic, racial, religious differences should not be allowed to result into hate and bloodshed through use of weapons.
6. Concepts of justice for all should be made part of curriculum in educational institutions and media discussions to change the mindset for achieving better for humanity.
7. Welfare measures should be taken at a larger scale to help the suffering millions due to wars for rehabilitation.
The conference ended with Prof. Haseena Hashia extending a vote of thanks to all the participants of the conference.
View of the speakers of Technical Sessions.